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MGT520 - International Business - Lecture Handout 45

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Learning Objectives:

  • Export & Import
  • Strategies for import and export
  • Status of Pakistan in Exports and Imports
  • FDI and Pakistan
  • International Business and Pakistan

Export Assistance, Pakistan:

  1. Export Promotion Bureau
  2. State bank of Pakistan as export refinance.
  3. Chambers of Commerce and industries as facilitators.
  4. Government as announcing special incentive to exporters like rebates etc.

Export Assistance, International:

  1. Exporters in the US can draw upon two types of government-backed assistance to help finance their exports; the Export-Import bank and export credit insurance provided by the FCIA.
  2. The Export-Import Bank is an independent agency of the US government whose mission is to provide aid in financing and facilitate exports and imports and the exchange of commodities between the US and other countries.
  3. In the US, the Foreign Credit Insurance Association (FCIA) provides export credit insurance. The FCIA provides insurance policies protecting US exporters against the risk of nonpayment by foreign debtors as a result of commercial and political risks.

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MGT520 - International Business - Lecture Handout 04

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What is globalization?

  1. There is a movement towards a globalization of markets, as the tastes and preferences of consumers in different nations are beginning to converge upon some global norm. The global acceptance of Coca-Cola, Levi's jeans, Sony Walkmans, and McDonald's hamburgers are all examples. Yet there are still significant differences - Germany still leads in per capita beer consumption, with a local pub on almost every corner and in some cities, women selling beer out of their front windows to passers by on the street. The French lead in wine consumption, and the consumption of wine is a natural part of life anywhere in France. Italians lead in pasta eaten, and these differences are unlikely to be eliminated any time soon. Hence, often there is still a need for marketing strategies and product features to be customized to local conditions.
  2. There is a movement towards a globalization of production, as firms disperse parts of their production processes to different locations around the globe to take advantage of national differences in the cost and quality of factors of production. The examples of Boeing and Swan Optical illustrate how production is dispersed. While part of the rationale is based on costs and finding the best suppliers in the world, there are also other factors. In Boeing’s case, if it wishes to sell airliners to countries like China, these countries often demand that domestic firms be
    contracted to supply portions of the plane - otherwise they will find another supplier (Airbus) who is willing to support local industry.

  3. Read more: MGT520 - International Business - Lecture Handout 04