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MGT510 - Total Quality Management - Lecture Handout 37

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How Quality is implemented? A dialogue with a Quality Manager

After listening to the discussion on quality in Pakistan, we are happy that Pakistani managers are as concerned about quality in their companies as any country in the world. The globe is approachable by every customer now and we need to understand that a competitor can emerge from any where in the world over night.

Post WTO and internet based economy era put a lot of pressure on mangers to deal with customers of 21st century, who are more aware and are more demanding and want innovation their products or services and also at lower price.

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MGT520 - International Business - Lecture Handout 26

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A voluntary export restraint (VER) may have the same effect as a quota. In a VER, another country or countries agree to not export more than a certain quantity to another country or countries. VERs are usually only enacted when it is feared that a more restrictive tariff or quota will be levied unless exports are"voluntarily" reduced. In other words, the threat of retaliation encourages compliance.

  1. Import quotas and VERs benefit domestic producers and harm domestic consumers. They can also even help foreign producers, as foreign producers can raise the price they charge for the limited supply they can sell, and take the difference as additional profit.
  2. Local content requirements specify that firms must produce some portion of a good domestically. The purpose of a local content requirement is usually to aid the formation of domestic industries, to keep manufacturers from switching to foreign suppliers, or to keep foreign firms from setting up “screwdriver plants.” where imported manufactured components undergo simple assembly in order to avoid some other trade restriction on the importation of the fully assembled product. Domestic suppliers benefit, and domestic consumers must bear the costs.
  3. Dumping occurs when a country sells goods in another country below cost or below fair market value. Dumping is a way firms can unload excess production into foreign markets. When plants must operate at a certain level regardless of domestic demand, the producer may find it appropriate to export some portion of the factory’s output abroad. At times dumping may also be done for predatory reasons, hoping to drive other producers out of the market, and subsidizing foreign sales with higher domestic prices. Antidumping policies are designed to prevent dumping from occurring, or by instituting import taxes in order to bring prices of “dumped” goods back up to fair levels.
  4. A wide range of administrative barriers can be enacted. Taking so much time to inspect goods that they spoil or setting down specific regulations on "product standards" that are very expensive to meet.

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