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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 05

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BALANCE OF TRADE

  • The balance of trade is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports in an economy over a certain period of time.
  • A positive balance of trade is known as a trade surplus and consists of exporting more than is imported;
  • A negative balance of trade is known as a trade deficit or, informally, a trade gap.

Physical balance of trade

  • Monetary balance of trade is different from physical balance of trade (which is expressed in amount of raw materials). Developed countries usually import a lot of primary raw materials from developing countries at low prices.
  • Often, these materials are then converted into finished products, and a significant amount of value is added

Factors that can affect BOT

  1. Exchange rates
  2. Trade agreements or barriers
  3. Other tax, tariff and trade measures
  4. Business cycle at home or abroad.

Balance of Payment

  • The Balance of Payments (or BOP) measures the payments that flow between any individual country and all other countries. It is used to summarize all international economic transactions for that country during a specific time period, usually a year.
  • The BOP is determined by the country's exports and imports of goods, services, and financial capital, as well as financial transfers. It reflects all payments and liabilities to foreigners (debits) and all payments and obligations received from foreigners (credits).

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CS605 - Software Engineering II - Lecture Handout 45

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CMM Overview

CMM Maturity Levels

There are five levels defined along the continuum of the CMM and, according to the SEI: "Predictability, effectiveness, and control of an organization's software processes are believed to improve as the organization moves up these five levels. While not rigorous, the empirical evidence to date supports this belief."

Read more: CS605 - Software Engineering II - Lecture Handout 45