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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 05

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BALANCE OF TRADE

  • The balance of trade is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports in an economy over a certain period of time.
  • A positive balance of trade is known as a trade surplus and consists of exporting more than is imported;
  • A negative balance of trade is known as a trade deficit or, informally, a trade gap.

Physical balance of trade

  • Monetary balance of trade is different from physical balance of trade (which is expressed in amount of raw materials). Developed countries usually import a lot of primary raw materials from developing countries at low prices.
  • Often, these materials are then converted into finished products, and a significant amount of value is added

Factors that can affect BOT

  1. Exchange rates
  2. Trade agreements or barriers
  3. Other tax, tariff and trade measures
  4. Business cycle at home or abroad.

Balance of Payment

  • The Balance of Payments (or BOP) measures the payments that flow between any individual country and all other countries. It is used to summarize all international economic transactions for that country during a specific time period, usually a year.
  • The BOP is determined by the country's exports and imports of goods, services, and financial capital, as well as financial transfers. It reflects all payments and liabilities to foreigners (debits) and all payments and obligations received from foreigners (credits).

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CS403 - Database Management Systems - Lecture Handout 39

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Overview of Lecture

  • Introduction to Views
  • Views, Data Independence, Security
  • Choosing a Vertical and Horizontal Subset of a Table
  • A View Using Two Tables
  • A View of a View
  • A View Using a Function
  • Updates on Views

Views

Views are generally used to focus, simplify, and customize the perception each user has of the database. Views can be used as security mechanisms by allowing users to access data through the view, without granting the users permissions to directly access the underlying base tables of the view.

Read more: CS403 - Database Management Systems - Lecture Handout 39