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MGT601 - SME Management - Lecture Handout 41

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Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

As a member of the WTO, Pakistan is committed to fulfilling TRIPs obligations. Copyrights piracy is considered very high, affecting imported computer software, videos, films and textile designs. Pakistan like developing countries was given deadline of January1, 2000 (i.e. five year period) to bring into conformity with the WTO commitment. List copyrights laws etc. Pakistan is not yet fully ready to implement its commitment.

In Pakistan, five laws/amendments have been promulgated, to provide intellectual property protection under WTO standards.

  1. Patents Ordinance, 2002
  2. Trademarks Ordinance, 2001
  3. Copyrights Amendments Ordinance, 2000.
  4. Industrial Designs Ordinance, 2000.
  5. Registration of Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits Ordinance, 2000.

In Industrial economies, intellectual property laws are regulated under a single umbrella organization to reduce the regulatory impediments that discouraged entrepreneurs from compliance with regulations. In Pakistan, all three areas (Copyrights, trademarks and patents) are managed separately by different federal ministries, i.e. Ministry of Education (copyrights), Ministry of commerce (trademarks) and Ministry of Industries & Production (Patents). There is urgency for enforcement of the laws promulgated regarding infringement of IPRs for which necessary rules should be farmed and notified a priority basis.

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MGT601 - SME Management - Lecture Handout 19

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Chapter deals with post and field this problems faced by a new concern.

  1. Acquisition of land;
  2. Construction of building and other aspect of civil works;
  3. Acquisition of machinery and its installation;
  4. Preliminary work about the sources of supply of raw materials , labor and managerial inputs;
  5. Prospecting about marketing;
  6. Preliminary work regarding sources of working capital;
  7. Coordination problem connected with the acquisition of different kinds of assets or completion of jobs;

Unless care is taken to ensure proper sequencing of different activities, the project would have cost over-run and/or time over run. Here in some kind of PERT analysis could be quite helpful.

Post Operative Problems of a New Enterprise

Several problems can create hurdle to start any enterprise-whether small or large. They need not always arise but an awareness regarding them could enable their timely avoidance or prevention. Below are given some of the post-operative problems.

  • Lack or absence of profits.
  • Experience factor:
    • Unfamiliarity or lack of experience in product or services line.
    • Lack of experience in management. There is a vast difference between being a machinist and being able to manage a machine shop.
    • Over-concentration of experience e.g. focusing only on the area of interest say, sales, finance, production etc and neglecting others.
    • Incompetence of management.

    Read more: MGT601 - SME Management - Lecture Handout 19