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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 24

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Mutual Funds

Balanced Funds

The basic objectives of balanced funds are to generate income as well as long-term growth of principal. These funds generally have portfolios consisting of bonds, preferred stocks, and common stocks. They have fairly limited price rise potential, but do have a high degree of safety, and moderate to high income potential.

Investors who desire a fund with a combination of securities in a single portfolio, and who seek some current income and moderate growth with low-level risk, would do well to invest in balanced mutual funds. Balanced funds, by and large, do not differ greatly from the growth and income funds described above.

Growth Funds

Growth funds are offered by every investment company. The primary objective of such funds is to seek long-term appreciation (growth of capital). The secondary objective is to make one's capital investment grow faster than the rate of inflation. Dividend income is considered an incidental objective of growth funds.

Growth funds are best suited for investors interested primarily in seeing their principal grow and are therefore to be considered as long-term investments - held for at least three to five years. Jumping in and out of growth funds tends to defeat their purpose. However, if the fund has not shown substantial growth over a three - to five-year period, sell it (redeem your shares) and seek a growth fund with another investment company. Candidates likely to participate in growth funds are those willing to accept moderate to high risk in order to attain growth of their capital and those investors who characterize their investment temperament as "fairly aggressive.

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MGT613 - Production / Operations Management - Lecture Handout 37

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We have progressed our discussion on Lean Production Systems and Just In Time Systems and we will now focus our attention upon Lean Systems in Services, Operational Benefits associated with JIT. We will also note some of the common Implementation Issues along which the Organizational face while implementing JIT. We also need to know what single Kanban System is and solve some examples.

Characteristics of Lean Systems: Just-in-Time

Continuous Improvement with the help of Lean Systems is possible if Operations Managers are able to focus on some of the common characteristics of Lean Systems, which include:

  1. Pull method of materials flow
  2. Consistently high quality
  3. Small lot sizes
  4. Uniform workstation loads
  5. Standardized components and work methods
  6. Close supplier ties
  7. Flexible workforce
  8. Line flows
  9. Maintenance
  10. Automated production
  11. Preventive maintenance

The figure below of a ship sailing through waters is a great representation of an organization carrying its business with hidden rocks (barriers) like scrap, unreliable suppliers and capacity imbalance, carrying the threat of sinking the ship. With proper and effective lean production system philosophy in place, this can be avoided and organization can continue to sail through smooth and calm waters.

Read more: MGT613 - Production / Operations Management - Lecture Handout 37