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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 13

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The Asian Development Bank will provide close to $ 6 billion development assistance to Pakistan during 2006-9. The World Bank unveiled a lending program of up to $6.5 billion for Pakistan under a new four-year, 2006-2009, aid strategy showing a significant increase in funding aimed largely at beefing up the country's infrastructure. Japan will provide $500
million annual economic aid to Pakistan.

The major causes of poverty in Pakistan

  • Lack of employment opportunities, which in the rural setting is caused by the absence of rural-urban linkages.
  • A slowdown in the pace of economic growth in the 1990s
  • With the burgeoning debt obligations, a decline in the public sector development program.

Key challenges facing the Government of Pakistan

  1. Restoring economic growth-constrained further by a drought-affected agriculture sector
  2. Managing the large debt burden with international financial institutions.
  3. Promoting domestic and foreign investors' confidence
  4. Increasing exports to generate foreign exchange,
  5. Maintaining a level of social development spending to stem the deteriorating social indicators.
  6. Law and Order, or Terrorism

Future Prospects for Pakistan's Economy

Pakistan's long term prospects will depend upon the interplay of evolution in political and social developments, economic policies to be pursued, the quality of governance and institutions, and most important investment in the human capital. It has become quite obvious from both Pakistan's own history and the experience of the developing countries that sustained economic growth and poverty reduction cannot take place merely on the strength of economic policies. Political stability, social cohesion, supporting institutions, and good governance are equally important ingredients coupled with both external environments for achieving economic success.

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MGT613 - Production / Operations Management - Lecture Handout 14

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We often come across statements similar to these, this bulb (product) is not as reliable as the previous bulb or my newspaper’s analysis and report writing (service) is not as reliable as my friend’s newspaper analysis. These two sentences summarize what human mind is looking for? That is reliability. Reliability is sought by customers from all organizations. Interestingly enough, the personnel working inside the organization whether engineers or managers also seek reliability of operations, management, IT, Accounting and other host of functions that help an organization perform its day to day routine activities effectively. Reliability is no longer that art which was considered to be possessed by a family of skilled craftsman rather has now evolved in to a vast and ever increasing field of Engineering. Reliability in general and reliability engineering in fact play a very critical part in an organizations product or service gaining competitive advantage over the organizations competitors.


We often overlook the concept of Reliability and confuse it with the concept of safety. Safety is one small aspect of reliability. Reliability needs to be looked into with the important perspective of failure of a product /service and normal operating conditions for that particular product or service. Lets us briefly look at the definitions of reliability, along with what is termed as failure and what are the normal operating conditions for a product.

  • · Reliability: The ability of a product, part, or system to perform its intended function under a prescribed set of conditions
  • Failure: Situation in which a product, part, or system does not perform as intended
  • Normal operating conditions: The set of conditions under which an item’s reliability is specified e.g. an automobile designed for operation in Europe may not fulfill its intended useful service in Pakistan. SO IT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO FAIL AND BE LESS RELIABLE. Kindly pay more attention to the word potential here, potential refers to something hidden or attached either to the performance or operations of a product. A bank servicing its client if fails to provide reliable normal operating service can lead to disastrous financial consequences for its customers similarly if a pharmacy starts dispensing expired medicines it can cause serious health hazards to its customers. All products and services carry with them the potential of doing something harmful if they are unable to function according to normal operating conditions. The thing or characteristic or quality that avoids something aberrant happening is known as RELIABILITY.

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