Spread Knowledge

Virtual University of Pakistan Video Lectures, Handouts, PPT, Quizzes, Assignments & Papers

MGT602 - Entrepreneurship - Lecture Handout 13

User Rating:  / 0

INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES (continued)

LEARNING OBJECTIV ES

  1. To identify the aspects and importance of international entrepreneurship.
  2. To identify the important strategic issues in international entrepreneurship.
  3. To identify the available options for entering international markets.
  4. To present the problems and barriers to international entrepreneurship.

DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTME NT

Majority interest Another equity method is to purchase a majority interest in a foreign business. The majority interest allows the entrepreneur to obtain managerial control while maintaining the company’s local identity. In technical sense anything over 50% of the equity of the firm is majority interest

100 percent ownership
One hundred percent ownership assures control. One form of 100 percent ownership is mergers and acquisitions, but the entrepreneur needs to have a general understanding of the benefits and problems of mergers as a strategic option. A horizontal merger is the combination of two firms that produce closely related projects in the same area. A vertical merger is the combination of firms in successive stages of production. A product extension merger occurs when acquiring and acquired companies have related production but do not have directly competing products. A market extension merger is when two firms produce the same products but sell them in different areas. A diversified activity merger is a conglomerate merger involving the consolidation of two unrelated firms. Mergers are a sound strategic option for an entrepreneur when synergy is present. Economies of scale are the most common reason for mergers. A second factor that causes synergy is taxation, or unused tax credits. The final factor is the benefits received in combining complementary resources.

Read more: MGT602 - Entrepreneurship - Lecture Handout 13

MGT603 - Strategic Management - Lecture Handout 37

User Rating:  / 0

MARKET SEGMENTATION

Learning objectives

The main objective of this chapter to enable to students about concern marketing issue such marketing segmentation, marketing mix and product positioning relating to strategy implementation.

Marketing Mix

Marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories:

  • Product
  • Price
  • Place (distribution)
  • Promotion

The term "marketing mix" became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The Concept of the Marketing Mix. Borden began using the term in his teaching in the late 1940's after James Culliton had described the marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients". The ingredients in Borden's marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and analysis. E. Jerome McCarthy later grouped these ingredients into the four categories that today are known as the 4 P's of marketing, depicted below:

Read more: MGT603 - Strategic Management - Lecture Handout 37