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MGT603 - Strategic Management - Lecture Handout 43

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Reviewing the underlying bases of an organization's strategy could be approached by developing a revised EFE Matrix and IFE Matrix. A revised IFE Matrix should focus on changes in the organization's management, marketing, finance/accounting, production/operations, R&D, and computer information systems strengths and weaknesses. A revised EFE Matrix should indicate how effective a firm's strategies have been in response to key opportunities and threats. This analysis could also address such questions as the following:

  1. How have competitors reacted to our strategies?
  2. How have competitors' strategies changed?
  3. Have major competitors' strengths and weaknesses changed?
  4. Why are competitors making certain strategic changes?
  5. Why are some competitors' strategies more successful than others?
  6. How satisfied are our competitors with their present market positions and profitability?
  7. How far can our major competitors be pushed before retaliating?
  8. How could we more effectively cooperate with our competitors?

Numerous external and internal factors can prohibit firms from achieving long-term and annual objectives. Externally, actions by competitors, changes in demand, changes in technology, economic changes, demographic shifts, and governmental actions may prohibit objectives from being accomplished. Internally, ineffective strategies may have been chosen or implementation activities may have been poor. Objectives may have been too optimistic. Thus, failure to achieve objectives may not be the result of unsatisfactory work by managers and employees. All organizational members need to know this to encourage their support for strategy-evaluation activities. Organizations desperately need to know as soon as possible when their strategies are not effective. Sometimes managers and employees on the front line discover this well before strategists.
External opportunities and threats and internal strengths and weaknesses that represent the bases of current strategies should continually be monitored for change. It is not really a question of whether these factors will change, but rather when they will change and in what ways. Some key questions to address in evaluating strategies are given here.

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MGT603 - Strategic Management - Lecture Handout 16

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After reading this lecture you will be able to know that how analytical tools affects the firms internal decisions.

Research and Development

The fifth major area of internal operations that should be examined for specific strengths and weaknesses is research and development (R&D). Many firms today conduct no R&D, and yet many other companies depend on successful R&D activities for survival. Firms pursuing a product development strategy especially need to have a strong R&D orientation.
The purpose of research and development are as follows:

  • Development of new products before competition
  • Improving product quality
  • Improving manufacturing processes to reduce costs

Organizations invest in R&D because they believe that such investment will lead to superior product or services and give them competitive advantages. Research and development expenditures are directed at developing new products before competitors do, improving product quality, or improving manufacturing processes to reduce costs.
One article on planning emphasized that effective management of the R&D function requires a strategic and operational partnership between R&D and the other vital business functions. A spirit of partnership and mutual trust between general and R&D managers is evident in the best-managed firms today. Managers in these firms jointly explore; assess; and decide the what, when, why, and how much of R&D. Priorities, costs, benefits, risks, and rewards associated with R&D activities are discussed openly and shared. The overall mission of R&D, thus, has become broad-based, including supporting existing businesses, helping launch new businesses, developing new products, improving product quality, improving manufacturing efficiency, and deepening or broadening the company's technological capabilities.
Every organization tries to finance as much project as they can. Therefore, R & D budget is important. What are the bases for the budget?

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