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MGT602 - Entrepreneurship - Lecture Handout 41

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DECISIONS (Continued….)


The entrepreneur may need to borrow funds to finance assets and meet cash needs. Fixed assets are usually financed by long-term debt borrowed from a bank. Alternatives include borrowing from family members, having partners contribute more funds or selling corporate stock. Many of these options require the entrepreneur to give up some equity.


An interim income statement helps to compare the actual with the budgeted amount for that period. The most effective use of the interim income statement is to establish cost standards and compare the actual with the budgeted amount for that time period. Costs are budgeted based on percentages of net sales. These percentages can be compared with actual percentages to see where tighter cost controls may be necessary. This lets the entrepreneur manage and control costs before it is too late. In later years, it is also helpful to look back on the first year of operation and make comparisons month-to-month. When expenses or costs are much higher than budgeted, the entrepreneur may need to determine the exact cause. Comparison of actual and budgeted expenses can be misleading for ventures with multiple products or services. For financial reporting purposes, the income statement summarizes expenses across all products and services.
This does not indicate the marketing cost for each product nor should the most profitable product. Allocating expenses over product lines be done as effectively as possible to avoid arbitrary allocation of costs.

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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 38

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Related Content: MGT604 - VU Lectures, Handouts, PPT Slides, Assignments, Quizzes, Papers & Books of Management of Financial Institutions

Agriculture Sector and Financial Institutions of Pakistan


What types of securities/collaterals are acceptable to the banks for providing agricultural credit to farmers/growers?

Agricultural land under the pass book system, urban/rural property, commercial property, Defense Saving Certificates, Special Saving Certificates, Gold & Silver Ornaments, personal surety, hypothecation of livestock and other assets e.g. motor boats / fishing trawlers, etc. are generally accepted by banks as collateral.

Is mark-up rate fixed by SBP on agricultural loans?

SBP does not fix any maximum/minimum mark-up rate to be charged on agricultural loans. Banks’ mark-up is based on their cost structure and risk profile of the borrowers and the sector. However, for benchmarking, Karachi inter-bank Offered Rate (KIBOR) is used by banks for the purpose.

Revolving Credit Scheme was introduced in 2003 in consultation with banks. Under the scheme, banks can provide finance for agricultural purposes on the basis of revolving limits for a period of three years with one-time documentation. The borrowers are required to clear the entire loan amount (including mark-up) once in a year at the date of their own choice.

Multiple withdrawals are allowed and the borrowers are also allowed to make partial repayments. Only the amount utilized by the borrower will attract mark-up. This facility can be availed by the farmers just like “running finance”. The limits under this scheme are automatically renewed on annual basis without any request or fresh application.

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