An LR(1) item is a pair [X → α•β, a] where X → αβ is a production and a∈T (terminals) is look-ahead symbol. The model uses a set of LR(1) items to represent each parser state. The model is called the canonical collection (CC) of set of LR(1) items.
The management should prefer to have a plan for IT development so as to help it to take various software development projects in a structured way. At the very start, planning is done by the management regarding following issues
IT planning provides a structured means of addressing the impact of technologies, including emerging technologies, on an organization. Through the planning process, relevant technologies are identified and evaluated in the context of broader business goals and targets. Based on a comparative assessment of relevant technologies, the direction for the organization can be established. Business planning is an accepted responsibility of management. Plans provide a direction and framework for action. Plans enunciate business goals and the actions that need to be initiated to achieve those goals including related benefits, resources and timeframes.