Basically, an organization is a group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall, common goal or set of goals. Business organizations can range in size from two people to tens of thousands.
How you interpret each of the above major parts of an organization depends very much on your values and your nature. People can view organizations as machines, organisms, families, groups, etc.
Organizational planning involves identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.
Roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships may be assigned to individuals or to groups. The individuals and groups may be part of the organization performing the project, or they may be external to it. Internal groups are often associated with a specific functional department such as engineering, marketing, or accounting.
Watts Humphrey in his book, Managing the Software process, has said, “If you
don’t know where you are, a map won’t help.” This saying is very relevant while
dealing with software project estimation. In a software project, unless you are sure
that your estimation is accurate, you cannot make much progress.
Software project estimation is a form of problem solving, and in most cases, the problem to be solved (i.e., developing a cost and effort estimate for a software project) is too complex to be considered in one piece. For this reason, we decompose the problem, re-characterizing it as a set of smaller (and hopefully, more manageable) problems.