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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 26

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Mutual Funds

Navigating the Investing Frontier: Where the Frauds Are

Many fraudsters rely on the telephone to carry out their investment scams. Using a technique known as cold calling (so-called because a caller telephones a person with whom they have not had previous contact), these fraudsters will hound you to buy stocks in small, unknown companies that are highly risky or, sometimes, part of a scam. In recent years, the Internet has also become increasingly attractive to fraudsters because it allows an individual or company to communicate with a large audience without spending a lot of time, effort, or money.

You should be skeptical of any offers you learn about from a cold caller or through the Internet. Here's what you need to know about cold calling and Internet fraud.

Cold calling

For many businesses, including securities firms, cold calling serve as a legitimate way to reach potential customers. Honest brokers use cold calling to find clients for the long term. They ask questions to understand your financial situation and investment goals before recommending that you buy anything.

Dishonest brokers use cold calling to find "quick hits." Some set up "boiler rooms" where high-pressure salespeople use banks of telephones to call as many potential investors as possible. Aggressive cold callers speak from persuasive scripts that include retorts for your every objection. As long as you stay on the phone, they'll keep trying to sell. And they won't
let you get a word in edgewise. Our advice is to avoid making any direct investments over the phone.

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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 19

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ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKING

12. Legal Reforms

Legal difficulties and time delays in recovery of defaulted loans have been removed through a new ordinance i.e. The Financial Institutions (Recovery of Finances) Ordinance, 2001. The new recovery laws ensures expeditious recovery of stuck up loans by the right of foreclosure and sale of mortgaged property with or without intervention of court and automatic transfer of case to execution proceeding. A Banking Laws Reforms Commission is reviewing, revising, and consolidating the banking laws and drafting new laws such as bankruptcy law.

13. Taxation

The corporate tax rates on banks were exorbitantly high in Pakistan thus adversely affecting their profitability and attractiveness as an avenue for investment and new equity injection. The Government has already reduced the tax rate from 58 percent to 44 percent during the last three years and it is envisaged that the rate will be reduced gradually and brought at par with the corporate tax rate of 35 percent in the next three years. This will in turn help in reducing the spread between the deposit rate and lending rate and benefit financial savers.

14. Agriculture Credit

A complete revamping of Agriculture Credit Scheme has been done recently with the help of commercial banks. The scope of the Scheme which was limited to production loans for inputs has been broadened to the whole value chain of agriculture sector. We have, with the grace of Allah, become a surplus country in food grains, livestock etc. and thus the needs of agriculture sector have also expanded. The SBP has included financing for silos, god-owns, refrigerated vans, agro processing and distribution under the cover of this scheme. This broadening of the scope as well the removal of other restrictions have enabled the commercial banks to increase their lending for agriculture by a multiple of four times compared to FY 1999-00 thus mainstreaming agriculture lending as part of their corporate business. Unlike the previous years when they were prepared to pay penalties for under performance they have set up higher targets for this year. The private commercial banks have also agreed to step in and increase their lending to agriculture.

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